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NEUROANATOMY is an annual journal of neuroanatomy and neuroscience. It is mainly published as an electronic journal in Adobe PDF format. Although all the articles' copyright holder is neuroanatomy.org, NEUROANATOMY is an open access journal. The term open access gives the right of readers to read, download, distribute, copy, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles free of charge.
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Neuroanatomy. Year: 2004; Volume: 3
Editorial • Published online December 17th, 2004 • 72 KB
No abstract available. © Neuroanatomy. 2004; 3: 1.
Original Article • Published online March 15th, 2004 • 445 KB
Erdogmus S, Govsa F.
Long thoracic nerve (LTN) injury has been reported after radiotherapy, trauma, patient’s position, transaxillary breast augmentation, implantation of transvenous leads, anaesthetic nerve block and transaxillary incision. Denervation of the serratus anterior muscle at LTN injury results in loss of scapular stabilization or winged scapula. LTN injury results in prolonged disability and impact on quality of life for patient and potential medicolegal concerns for the physician. The purposes of this study is to map the course of LTN relative to the scapula and sternum, thereby developing guidelines to aid in the prevention of LTN injuries. The course of the long thoracic nerve were investigated in 15 adult Turkish cadavers. Each cadaver was placed in the transaxillary thoracotomy positions. The LTN was exposed bilaterally in its course from axilla to its penetration into serratus anterior muscle. The nerve courses vertically, gets progressively closer to the anterior border of the scapula. The length of the LTN was measured as 201.4 ± 20.7 mm on the right and 208.6 ± 17 mm on the left. The distance from main trunk to clavicle was 28.8 ± 6.3 mm on the right and 29.8 ± 3.6 mm on the left side. The distance from sternal angle to LTN was measured as 212.4 ± 21 mm on the right and 220.5 ± 27.5 mm on the left. The distance between xiphoid process was 246.5 ± 21.8 mm on the right and 242.8 ± 27.9 mm on the left. The distance from scapular rim to LTN was 61.9 ± 10.7 mm on the right and 57.6 ± 13 mm on the left. The length of thickest branch of LTN was 22.6 ± 10.4 mm on the right and 31.4 ± 28.1 mm on the left. The diameter of the thickest branch was 1.6 ± 0.59 mm on the right and 1.63 ± 0.85 mm on the left. The number of side branches was 6.44 ± 2.06 ones on the right and 6.45 ± 2.77 ones on the left side. Bifurcation number of terminal branch of LTN was 2.55 ± 0.72 ones on the right and 2.54 ± 0.68 ones on the left. By using these anatomical guidelines, we believe that the incidence of iatrogenic long thoracic nerve injury can be minimized. © Neuroanatomy. 2004; 3: 2-7.
Original Article • Published online April 3rd, 2004 • 485 KB
Tufan AC, Akdogan I, Adiguzel E.
Experimental studies on animal models play essential roles in the development of preventive, diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for diseases in a wide spectrum of fields including neurological sciences. The goal of this study was to demonstrate the shell-less culture system of the chick embryo as a potential experimental model in the field of developmental neurobiology. We were able to observe and record the central nervous system development of a vertebrate embryo in an artificial experimental culture container starting from an early, three-vesicle brain stage up to a well-developed five-vesicle brain stage with an embryo survival rate of 100%. Thus, this model system has the potential to enhance our knowledge on molecular and developmental neurobiology at both basic and clinical science level. © Neuroanatomy. 2004; 3: 8-11.
Case Report • Published online April 26th, 2004 • 126 KB
Filipovic B, Jovic N, Filipovic B.
During routine examination of a patient with posttraumatic stress disorder, a large cavum septi pellucidi was noted on CT scan. Cava septi pellucidi were seldom reported as a finding in posttraumatic stress disorders. In our opinion, large cava are only the marks of the brain susceptibility for various neuropsychiatric diseases and disorders. © Neuroanatomy. 2004; 3: 12-14.
Original Article • Published online May 10th, 2004 • 84 KB
Tuncali D, Toksoy K, Tan Baser N, Terzioglu A, Aslan G.
The morbidity and social cost is found to be very high for upper extremity nerve injuries. Despite the fast advances in scientific studies and technology, a complete recovery following peripheral nerve injuries is still not possible, though, comprehensible progression in this field is obtained especially following microsurgery techniques. The aim of this study, is to present the anatomical locations of upper extremity nerve injuries treated in our clinic and the relationship between nerve injuries with other vital organ and soft tissue injuries. 111 patients with 134 nerve injuries treated in our clinic between January 2001 and December 2003 were included in this study. A high association of soft tissue injuries was found for all nerve types. The functional deficits observed following upper extremity nerve injuries, generate deep marks on the psychosocial life of the patients. It is a known fact that, an accompanying muscle, tendon or artery injury reveals a worse prognosis. It is clearly observed from our study that an isolated nerve injury is an exception than a rule. This should be a major concern when consequences of upper extremity injuries and the results of treatments are being evaluated. The accompanying soft tissue injuries may overall change the fate of an otherwise successful nerve repair. © Neuroanatomy. 2004; 3: 15-17.
Review Article • Published online May 24th, 2004 • 136 KB
Painful tingling, numbness, weakness of the hands or upper extremities may be the result of the entrapment of a peripheral nerve. Although these problems are common, they sometimes lead to diagnostic and management difficulties. A thorough knowledge of the anatomy of the common entrapment sites, the pathophysiology of the nerve injury, a detailed history and physical examination together with electrodiagnostic studies usually lead physicians to the right management. Most common upper extremity entrapment neuropathies are encountered in this review. © Neuroanatomy. 2004; 3: 18-24.
Autobiography • Published online June 29th, 2004 • 332 KB
Professor Uner Tan was born at Unye which is at the Black Sea cost on May 1st, 1937. He graduated from secondary school at Corum and started higher education at Ege University, Faculty of Medicine, at 1956. He continued his higher education at Goettingen University and graduated from this faculty simultaneously from the neuroscience PhD program at Max- Planck Institute at 1966. He returned to Turkey at 1969 and worked at Hacettepe University (Ankara), Ataturk University (Erzurum), Black Sea Technical University (Trabzon) and Cukurova University (Adana) by timely order and he was retired at 2004. Professor Tan is a Member of Turkish Academy of Sciences, Professional Member of American Neuropsychology Academy, and Advisory Member of World Innovation Foundation. © Neuroanatomy. 2004; 3: 25-29.
Case Report • Published online July 6th, 2004 • 142 KB
Sarikaya B, Akpinar E, Karli-Oguz K, Cil B.
Joubert syndrome is a rare posterior fossa malformation presenting with cerebellar and brainstem malfunction. Differential diagnosis should include other posterior fossa malformations. Typical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of Joubert syndrome including “molar tooth sign” and “batwing appearance” are discussed which strongly suggest the diagnosis. © Neuroanatomy. 2004; 3: 30-31.
Case Report • Published online August 2nd, 2004 • 203 KB
Gurdal E, Cakmak O, Yalcinkaya M, Uzun I, Cavdar S.
Of the 30 cadavers we examined two unusual variations of the anterior communicating artery (ACoA) were observed. In the first case ACoA was duplicated with a fenestrated anterior cerebral artery (ACA). In the second case, an oblique ACoA was present. Further, two branches of the oblique ACoA were joined the right ACA. The clinical significance of the cases has been disscussed. © Neuroanatomy. 2004; 3: 32-34.
Original Article • Published online September 15th, 2004 • 260 KB
Tatar I, Akpinar G, Acikgoz B, Tunali S, Aldur MM, Celik HH, Kapakin S, Surucu HS.
It is known that circumventricular organs that are located around the ventricular system of the brain are lack of blood-brain barrier and support the body water-salt balance. They also effect many physiological events such as some neuroendocrine and reproduction mechanisms. In different pathological conditions their results and the step in which the circumventricular organs are affected are unknown. Although circumventricular organs do not have a bloodbrain barrier, they do not completely show the same characteristics. In pathological conditions they show their own effects by means of mediators. It is necessary to research their structural changes, also the changes in the neurotransmitters that are affected by circumventricular organs. Hydrocephalus was induced in rats by injecting kaolin into the subarachnoidal space at the cranial convexity. Subarachnoidal hemorrhage was realized with a puncture of the basilar artery through transclival route. We took and studied images using a JEOL SEM ASID-10 (Japan) electron microscope. We examined slices of subfornical organ, organum vasculosum, lamina terminalis, area postrema and median eminence. The purpose of this study is to view three-dimensional scanning electron microscopic images of the circumventricular organs using the anaglyph technique that records images as stereopairs (converted as a red-blue images and viewed with special glasses). © Neuroanatomy. 2004; 3: 35-37.
Brief Review • Published online September 28th, 2004 • 489 KB
Baskaya MK, Coscarella E, Gomez F, Morcos JJ.
The posterior communicating (PComA) and anterior choroidal arteries (AChA) are the two major branches of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery. Thorough knowledge of the anatomy and awareness of the variations and anomalies of these arteries are of clinical and scientific importance in dealing with lesions involving these arteries and their branches. This article briefly reviews surgical and angiographic anatomy of the PComA and AChA. © Neuroanatomy. 2004; 3: 38-42.
Case Report • Published online November 24th, 2004 • 126 KB
Tun K, Okutan O, Kaptanoglu E, Gok B, Solaroglu I, Beskonakli E.
Atlantooccipital fusion is complete or partial congenital fusion of the atlas to the base of occiput. Basilar impression may complicate the clinical picture with the reduction of the vertical height of atlas causing odontoid or other bony structures project into foramen magnum and medulla oblongata. This results in narrowing of the foramen magnum and leads to neural compression. Authors present an unusual case in which the atlantooccipital fusion is complicated with the inverted hypertrophy of occipital condyles. © Neuroanatomy. 2004; 3: 43-45.
Original Article • Published online December 15th, 2004 • 482 KB
Ziyal IM, Bilginer B, Ozcan OE, Basar R, Sekhar LN, Ozgen T.
In this study, the mobilization of all cranial nerves with drilling of several bony structure, cutting of ligaments, folds and dural attachments were performed via different skull base approaches. Twenty cadaveric head specimens filled with microfil were dissected bilaterally. On 5 dry skulls, important bony structures were also studied. We observed that the mobilization of the nerves II, III, VI, VIII, and XII were not easy comparing to other cranial nerves. The subfrontal parenchymal tissue should be removed and the olfactory nerve should be dissected for mobilization of the first cranial nerve. The mobilization of the nerves IV, V, VII, IX, and XI were dramatically remarkable after drilling of superior orbital fissure, foramen ovale, foramen rotundum, Fallopian canal, and jugular foramen. © Neuroanatomy. 2004; 3: 46-50.
Original Article • Published online December 15th, 2004 • 282 KB
Tuncali D, Cigsar B, Talim B, Yuksel-Barutcu A, Aslan G.
The use of a vein graft as a barrier between arterial and nerve repair sites has not been reported previously. The aim of this study is to present the possible use of the vein graft for insulating a nerve repair site from an adjacent arterial anastomosis. Bilateral longitudinal incisions were created on 5 Sprague-Dawley rats. Bilateral nerve coaptations and femoral artery repairs were performed. The left nerve repair site was wrapped with the vein graft obtained from the ipsilateral femoral vein. At the postoperative second month, the repair sites were visually evaluated. Blunt dissection between the nerve and the artery was performed and specimens were obtained for histopathological evaluation. There were no signs of absorption or degradation of the graft under the operating microscope. Minimal adhesions were noticed between the vein-wrapped nerve and the artery. In the vein-wrapped side, mechanical dissection was significantly easier. Histopathological evaluation revealed sufficient insulation of the nerve from the artery repair site. Vein grafts can be used in order to prevent adhesions between repair sites of adjacent injured structures. Despite the favorable results achieved in this model, we do not urge the routine use of this method in every clinical situation. However in a clinical setting that an extensive fibrosis is expected, such as combined and multiple injuries affecting tendons, nerves and arteries, we believe the technique has a place as a favorable adjuvant procedure. © Neuroanatomy. 2004; 3: 51-53.
Original Article • Published online December 15th, 2004 • 622 KB
Kurtoglu Z, Ozturk AH, Bagdatoglu C, Turac A, Camdeviren H, Uzmansel D, Aktekin M.
Trapidil’s therapeutic effect is shown in nervous tissue in ischemia and reperfusion injury, but any study on trapidil’s effects on regeneration in the peripheric nervous system after crush injury is not encountered in the literature. In this study, 40 female albino wistar rats were used. The sciatic nerves were crushed for 20 seconds by a jeweler’s forceps. A single dose of 8 mg/kg of trapidil was administered to the treatment group intraperitoneally. After the crush injury, the crush site was excised on 2nd, 7th, 15th, 30th, and 45th days, fixed in formalin and then prepared for routine histological evaluation. Each section was stained with toluidin blue. Myelin thicknesses were measured by an ocular micrometer. Measurements were evaluated by factorial analysis of variance. Separation of myelin lamellae and vacuole formation, which are signs of axonal degeneration were seen on the 7th and 15th days of both groups, but were more prominent in the crush group. Regenerating myelinated fibers were increased on the 30th and 45th days in increasing density. Interaction for myelin thickness was statistically significant with Student-Neyman-Keuls Post Hoc test (p = 0.038). In the trapidil group, myelin thickness was less on the 15th and 45th days according to the control group (p < 0.05). These findings were interpreted as trapidil was effective in preventing edema and myelin damage by preventing vasospasm, inactivating macrophages, inhibiting the inflammatory response and stabilizing the cell membrane. On the other hand, it is thought that trapidil had a retarding effect on myelin regeneration in the recovery period. © Neuroanatomy. 2004; 3: 54-58.
Meeting Report • Published online December 15th, 2004 • 167 KB
No abstract available. © Neuroanatomy. 2004; 3: 59-60.
Letter to the Editor • Published online December 15th, 2004 • 74 KB
No abstract available. © Neuroanatomy. 2004; 3: 61.
Announcement • Published online December 15th, 2004 • 53 KB
No author available.
No abstract available. © Neuroanatomy. 2004; 3: 62.
Abstracts • Published online April 11th, 2004 • 803 KB
No author available.
No abstract available. © Neuroanatomy. 2004; 3: Supplement 1.
Table of Contents [Archives]
Year: 2011; Volume: 10 • In this volume there is 1 article.
Year: 2010; Volume: 9 • In this volume there are 3 articles.
Year: 2009; Volume: 8 • In this volume there are 11 articles.
Year: 2008; Volume: 7 • In this volume there are 24 articles and 1 supplement.
Year: 2007; Volume: 6 • In this volume there are 26 articles and 1 supplement.
Year: 2006; Volume: 5 • In this volume there are 19 articles and 2 supplement.
Year: 2005; Volume: 4 • In this volume there are 21 articles and 1 supplement.
Year: 2004; Volume: 3 • In this volume there are 18 articles and 1 supplement.
Year: 2003; Volume: 2 • In this volume there are 14 articles and 1 supplement.
Year: 2002; Volume: 1 • In this volume there are 9 articles.