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NEUROANATOMY is an annual journal of neuroanatomy and neuroscience. It is mainly published as an electronic journal in Adobe PDF format. Although all the articles' copyright holder is neuroanatomy.org, NEUROANATOMY is an open access journal. The term open access gives the right of readers to read, download, distribute, copy, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles free of charge.
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Neuroanatomy. Year: 2006; Volume: 5
Editorial • Published online December 29th, 2006 • 104 KB
No abstract available. © Neuroanatomy. 2006; 5: 1.
Original Article • Published online January 24th, 2006 • 149 KB
Nayak S, Ramnarayan K, Somayaji N, Bairy KL.
Anatomy is one of the important basic science subjects in the medical curriculum. The studies on problem based learning (PBL) curricula have shown that teaching/learning of basic sciences (especially anatomy) suffer. Our evaluation of a PBL curriculum, using documentary analysis method showed that embryology, histology and osteology were not covered adequately through clinical problems. We recommend a hybridized approach for teaching/learning anatomy in the PBL schools. The important topics which are not covered through health problems could be taught through lectures. © Neuroanatomy. 2006; 5: 2–3.
Case Report • Published online February 13rd, 2006 • 172 KB
Surendran S, Bhat SM, Krishnamurthy A.
Radial nerve, a nerve of the upper extremity is a branch from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus. At the level of the front of the lateral epicondyle of humerus it divides into its two terminal branches, the superficial (SBRN) and the deep branch. Normally, SBRN is found to lie deep to the brachioradialis muscle (BR) in the forearm and passes deep to the tendon of BR before winding round the lateral side of the lower end of radius. In the present case, SBRN was found to be passing between two slips of the tendon of BR before entering the dorsum of hand. © Neuroanatomy. 2006; 5: 4–5.
Case Report • Published online February 15th, 2006 • 197 KB
The sciatic nerve is the largest branch of the sacral plexus. It usually divides at the upper angle of the popliteal fossa. One of its common variations is high division into tibial and common peroneal nerves. Low divisions are rare. Trifurcation of the sciatic nerve is extremely rare. Here, one such unusual type of trifurcation of sciatic nerve has been reported. The sciatic nerve gave an abnormal trunk in addition to the tibial and common peroneal nerves. The abnormal trunk divided into lateral cutaneous nerve of the calf and the peroneal communicating nerve. Since the point of trifurcation was in the middle of the popliteal fossa, it is of clinical and surgical importance. © Neuroanatomy. 2006; 5: 6–7.
Original Article • Published online February 23rd, 2006 • 264 KB
Filipovic BR, Jovic NJ, Filipovic BF, Ilankovic AN, Ilankovich NN.
Small cava septi pellucidi (CSP) are sometimes automatically regarded as an anatomical variation (asymptomatic CSP), especially if they could not be associated with a neuropsychiatric disorder, like schizophrenia or alcoholism (symptomatic CSP). Our aim was to investigate the impact of symptomatic CSP in the population in which CSP length was less or equal to 6 mm (criterion established by Nopoulos et al in 1997). We have overlooked 479 post mortem brains that underwent serial frozen sections in the axial plane on 1.5 mm of thickness. A sample of 110 CSP was obtained, among which 50 were adequate for this study. In our sample, 26 CSP were asymptomatic, 13 were on alcoholic brains, 6 were obtained from subjects who faced one or several head trauma and later manifested aggressive behavior, and remaining 5 belonged to schizophrenics. There were no major differences in lengths and widths measured, except between the lengths of CSP in schizophrenics and alcoholics (p<0.05, Bonferroni post hoc correction). Cava shorter or equal to 6 mm were normal variation in more than a half of our sample. Symptomatic CSP had a representative impact of 48%, out of which majority was revealed in alcoholics. We suggest a precaution before classify a small CSP into anatomical variations. © Neuroanatomy. 2006; 5: 8–11.
Original Article • Published online March 3rd, 2006 • 467 KB
Bilgen M, Al-Hafez B.
The first goal of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of performing three-dimensional, time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) on the spine and spinal cord (SC) of mouse. The MRA studies were performed at 9.4 T magnetic field strength using a custom designed inductively coupled surface coil. The results of the present study demonstrate the possibility of remotely imaging the arteries supplying blood to the mouse spine and spinal cord at high spatial resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio. Data also show that the arteries in the parenchyma of the SC are highly organized with projections at multiple levels along the cord, as originating from the anterior spinal artery. The second goal is to compare the arterial organization in mouse and rat at the spinal level and to explain cause-and-effect relationship to examine the differences observed in the neuropathologies following spinal cord injury in these species. © Neuroanatomy. 2006; 5: 12–16.
Original Article • Published online March 13rd, 2006 • 244 KB
Mourgela S, Anagnostopoulou S, Warnke JP.
Denticulate ligament and filum terminale are two eminences of spinal pia mater which bind together and form a unit that supports and protects the spinal cord. The purpose of this study was to prove the relationship between denticulate ligament and filum terminale and find out the anatomic structure of their interconnection on conus medullaris. For this post-mortem study we used 10 fresh cadavers, which were previously used for downward orientated thecaloscopic procedures. The cadavers were placed in prone position and the spine was dissected at the level of L1-L2 spinal processes. Dura mater was opened after thecaloscopic exploration and the anatomy of the content of thecal sac was further investigated. We assessed endoscopically in every cadaver that filum terminale is the anatomical continuation of denticulate ligament. Macroscopically, the denticulate ligament after having given its last eminence, continues forming an externally visible white line of tissue on each side of conus medullaris, which we named “linea alba medullae spinalis” or “linea alba conus medullaris”, a structure which ends forming the filum terminale. © Neuroanatomy. 2006; 5: 17–19.
Original Article • Published online May 15th, 2006 • 280 KB
Anagnostopoulou S, Mourgela S, Katritsis D.
The purpose of this study was to measure the longitudinal and vertical diameters of corpus callosum and its parts as well as the brain; in order to define the position of corpus callosum within the brain. In this study, 42 formalin fixed brains, which were removed from cadavers (23 males, 19 females), aged 30-40 years, were used. Brains were carefully cut in the mediosagittal plane and the medial surface of the brain hemispheres were printed on a transparent sheet of paper. On these papers, the longitudinal diameters of every anatomical part of corpus callosum and longitudinal and vertical diameters of brain hemispheres were measured. The diameters measured were: the longitudinal (frontal to occipital pole-AB) and the vertical diameter (upper to lower surface of brain hemisphere-CD) of brain hemispheres, the distance of genu to frontal pole (AE), the distance of splenium to occipital pole (ZB), the longitudinal diameter of genu (EZ/3) and splenium (EZ/5), and the longitudinal diameter of CC (EZ). Statistical analysis followed, which was performed by using the 2-tailed Pearson correlation test. AB has a positive linear correlation with CD, AE, BZ and with EZ. EZ has a positive linear correlation with AB and with CD. The ratios EZ/AB=0.46, EZ/CD=0.85, EZ/AE=2.29 and EZ/ZB=1.42 represented stable analogies. By applying these ratios to radiological images of patients, the neurosurgeons would perform the targeted callosal procedures in a more precise way. © Neuroanatomy. 2006; 5: 20–23.
Case Report • Published online May 22nd, 2006 • 272 KB
Poornima GC, Satyaprasad V.
Biceps brachii is known for its variations; 3rd and 4th head being present are reported. Similarly, musculocutaneous nerve is also known to show variations. In the present case, we report the absence of musculocutaneous nerve bilaterally and the presence of third head of biceps brachii in the left arm. Branches of median nerve in a single cadaver innervate all the flexors in both the arms. We report this case as a unique one because of the combination of variations. © Neuroanatomy. 2006; 5: 24–26.
Case Report • Published online June 8th, 2006 • 319 KB
We present a case of azygos pericallosal artery mimicking an anterior communicating artery aneurysm in a patient with headache that we thought the first reported case detected by CT angiography. © Neuroanatomy. 2006; 5: 27–29.
Case Report • Published online August 9th, 2006 • 304 KB
Nayak S, Samuel VP, Somayaji N.
Variations in the nerves and muscles of the arm are not uncommon. We saw the concurrent variations of median nerve, musculocutaneous nerve and biceps brachii muscle in the right upper limb. Biceps had an abnormal third head. The median nerve was formed below the midpoint of the arm and passed through a tunnel in the third head of the biceps along with brachial artery. The musculocutaneous nerve did not pierce coracobrachialis muscle. Median nerve and brachial artery passing through the third head of biceps may lead to neurovascular compression symptoms. © Neuroanatomy. 2006; 5: 30–32.
Case Report • Published online August 9th, 2006 • 216 KB
Paval J, Nayak S.
High division of the sciatic nerve was found bilaterally in a 70 year old male cadaver. Common peroneal nerve was found piercing the piriformis muscle dividing the muscle into upper and lower slips. Tibial nerve was found emerging below the lower slip of the piriformis muscle. Inferior gluteal nerve was formed by two roots one above and one below the lower slip of the piriformis muscle. Here in this case report we discuss the possible sciatic nerve entrapment due to this kind of variations and we also discuss the two conditions named sciatica and the piriformis syndrome. © Neuroanatomy. 2006; 5: 33–34.
Case Report • Published online October 9th, 2006 • 226 KB
Biceps brachii muscle is very variable. Biceps may be composed of one to five heads. Although the variations in the origin are plenty, there are a very few cases reported on the variations in the insertion of the biceps brachii muscle. In this report we present a variant biceps brachii muscle which gives an abnormal muscle fasciculus from its medial side which continues as a narrow tendinous slip and is inserted in to the medial supracondylar ridge of humerus. We discuss in this report, the possible median nerve entrapment due to the presence of such a variation. © Neuroanatomy. 2006; 5: 35–36.
Case Report • Published online October 16th, 2006 • 297 KB
Uzmansel D, Aktekin M, Kara A.
Multiple variations of the nerves arising from the lumbar plexus were found on the right side of a 35-yearold female cadaver. These were the accessory lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (aLFCN) arising from the femoral nerve, double ilioinguinal nerves and an accessory nerve branch joining to the genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve. The possible clinical problems related to the variations of these nerves were discussed. © Neuroanatomy. 2006; 5: 37–39.
Original Article • Published online November 1th, 2006 • 376 KB
The pterygopalatine ganglion lies deep in the pterygopalatine fossa, being morphologically attached to the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve and functionally belonging to the facial nerve. The topographical relations of this deeply located ganglion are rather difficult to study and the specific morphology, in fetal life and adults, is lacking in references. To study the macroscopic appearance and the topographical relations of the fetal pterygopalatine ganglion five fetuses with crown-rump length (CRL) longer than 25 cm. were used. Drawn ganglia from the dissected specimens were submitted to silver staining with the Bielschowsky technique (on blocks). In the last trimester of the fetal life the pterygopalatine ganglion is configured and its topographical relations reproduce those described in adults. Structurally, the microscopic study revealed a constituted autonomic ganglion, with the preganglionic fibers entering the ganglionic core and configuring an intraganglionic plexus intermingled with eccentric neurocytes of 6–12 microns size. © Neuroanatomy. 2006; 5: 40–41.
Case Report • Published online November 14th, 2006 • 204 KB
The occurrence of Wormian (sutural) bones in the skull is quite common. Presence of metopic suture is also known. We found a case of complete metopic suture resulting in doubling of the frontal bone in an adult Indian skull. The same skull had a large Wormian bone at the bregma. Knowledge of this variation is very important for radiologists, orthopedic and neurosurgeons. Similar case has not been reported hitherto. © Neuroanatomy. 2006; 5: 42–43.
Case Report • Published online December 3rd, 2006 • 268 KB
Rajanigandha V, Mangala P, Latha P, Savinaya S, Vasudha S, Prakash S.
Any deviation from the normal pattern of the human body is usually studied constantly through surgical findings, electro diagnostic studies and cadaveric dissections. We report the appearance of multiple anomalies of the nerves and muscles in the left upper limb of a 49 year old embalmed male cadaver, encountered during a routine educational dissection study. Anatomical description is achieved by measurements of length, width, attachments, relations and their innervating branches. The knowledge of the concerned anatomical variation may help in explaining the incomprehensible clinical signs. © Neuroanatomy. 2006; 5: 44–46.
Case Report • Published online December 12nd, 2006 • 396 KB
Madhyastha S, Bhat SM.
In this paper we report a variation in the formation of phrenic nerve and mention its clinical implications. Phrenic nerve arises chiefly from the fourth cervical ventral ramus, but also the ventral rami of the third and fifth cervical spinal nerves contribute to its formation. A 60-year-old male cadaver presented bilateral variations in the origin of the phrenic nerve. Phrenic nerve was arising from supraclavicular nerve on both sides and receiving a communicating branch from the superior trunk of the brachial plexus. The same cadaver also presented an early division of the superior trunk of the brachial plexus. The clinical significance of such variations during regional anaesthesia is of considerable interest. © Neuroanatomy. 2006; 5: 47–49.
Original Article • Published online December 25th, 2006 • 252 KB
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), a condition occurring in some children of mothers who have consumed alcohol during pregnancy, is characterized among other features by motor and sensory derangements and neurobehavioral deficits. However, no specific changes in the brain and spinal cord that could conclusively explain these neuronal defects have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of continuous ethanol exposure during early gestation on the peripheral nerve, towards the understanding of neuronal disorders in FAS. A chick model of FAS was used and embryos were exposed to 5%, 10% and 15% ethanol on embryonic days 1-8. The effects on general growth and development, and on the peripheral nerve of ethanol-exposed embryos were examined following the full period of gestation. There was significant reduction in crown rump length, head circumference and body weight in ethanol exposed chicks when compared with appropriate control groups. The growth retardation among the different alcohol exposed groups was dose dependent and prenatal mortality of embryos was seen in embryos exposed to 10% and 15% ethanol. Features of myelin degeneration were observed in the peripheral nerve in majority of chick embryos exposed to 10% and 15% ethanol as compared to embryos exposed to 5% ethanol as well as in the control groups. Thus, this study demonstrates the dose dependent effects of continuous prenatal ethanol exposure in a chick model of FAS. More significantly, it demonstrates the detrimental effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developing peripheral nerve. © Neuroanatomy. 2006; 5: 50–55.
Abstracts • Published online April 15th, 2006 • 1.4 MB
No author available.
No abstract available. © Neuroanatomy. 2006; 5: Supplement 1.
Abstracts • Published online September 20th, 2006 • 1.5 MB
No author available.
No abstract available. © Neuroanatomy. 2006; 5: Supplement 2.
Table of Contents [Archives]
Year: 2011; Volume: 10 • In this volume there is 1 article.
Year: 2010; Volume: 9 • In this volume there are 3 articles.
Year: 2009; Volume: 8 • In this volume there are 11 articles.
Year: 2008; Volume: 7 • In this volume there are 24 articles and 1 supplement.
Year: 2007; Volume: 6 • In this volume there are 26 articles and 1 supplement.
Year: 2006; Volume: 5 • In this volume there are 19 articles and 2 supplement.
Year: 2005; Volume: 4 • In this volume there are 21 articles and 1 supplement.
Year: 2004; Volume: 3 • In this volume there are 18 articles and 1 supplement.
Year: 2003; Volume: 2 • In this volume there are 14 articles and 1 supplement.
Year: 2002; Volume: 1 • In this volume there are 9 articles.