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Neuroanatomy. Year: 2009; Volume: 8

Pages 1-3

Original Article • Published online March 14th, 2009 • 228 KB

The dimensions of the sacral spinal canal in thecaloscopy: a morphometric MRI study

Mourgela S, Sakellaropoulos A, Anagnostopoulou S, Warnke JP.

The subject of this study was the measurement of certain anatomic diameters in the sacral spinal canal by using the lumbosacral MRI studies of 25 patients with unclear pain symptoms, in order to estimate, from the pure anatomic point of view, the capability to perform thecaloscopy in this anatomical region. Since now anatomic morphometric data of the sacral region were delivered only from the cadaver specimens’ sectioning performed in anatomic institutes during the 60’s and 70’s years. The parameters measured were: 1) the inclination of the lumbosacral angle, 2) the duralsack’s end, 3) the length of all the sacral spinal processes, 4) The length of the sacral spinal canal in its centre, and 5) The width of the sacral hiatus. The results of the measurements were in detail presented and an evaluation of them concerning the applicability of flexible endoscopes in the sacral spinal canal was performed. It was proven that the duralsack’s end in 40% of the patients at the middle of the S2 vertebral body lies, an anatomical position, which through the sacral hiatus easy to access is. The length under the sacral spinal processes is smaller than the length of the sacral spinal canal in its centre, a fact that makes the manipulation of a flexible endoscope easier, if someone works straight under the spinal processes and has a smaller distance to run. Through the sacral hiatus the introduction of the flexible endoscope is by many patients possible because of its adequate width. © Neuroanatomy. 2009; 8: 1–3.

Pages 4-6

Case Report • Published online March 14th, 2009 • 564 KB

A brachial plexus variation characterized by the absence of the superior trunk

Villamere J, Goodwin S, Hincke M, Jalali A.

During routine dissection of a 55-year-old female cadaver, a variation of the brachial plexus characterized by the absence of the superior trunk on the left side was observed. The ventral rami of the C5 and C6 nerve roots, without joining to form the superior trunk, independently divided into anterior and posterior divisions, which joined the lateral and posterior cords, respectively. Additionally, the suprascapular nerve that normally originates from the superior trunk initiated exclusively from the C5 nerve root in this variation. Similar variations in the brachial plexus were not observed on the contralateral side. The details of this variation and its clinical significance are discussed herein. © Neuroanatomy. 2009; 8: 4–6.

Pages 7-14

Original Article • Published online March 14th, 2009 • 3.7 MB

Histological structure of midbrain red nucleus in albino rats at different ages

Zaki MSA.

This study was conducted on twelve healthy male albino rats to investigate the histological structure of the midbrain red nucleus at different ages and to correlate these changes using light and electron microscopic preparations. The animals were classified into three groups: neonates (early and late), adult and senile. Upon sacrifaction, midbrain samples were prepared for light microscope (L/M) examination using haematoxylene, eosin and silver stains. Other minute parts were processed for transmission electron microscopic examination.In this study, L/M examination revealed that the nerve cells of red nucleus were relatively small at the age of 7th and 21st days and became relatively larger at the age of 4 months of life, followed by reduction again occurring at senility. In the 7th days of life there was a morphological maturation affecting the nerve cells of the red nucleus was noticed by electron microscopic examination in the form of appearance of synapses. Each neuron contained a nucleus, which varied from eccentric to central position. Nuclei were usually indented and the cytoplasm contained prominent mitochondria, Golgi apparatus and rough endoplasmic reticulum. The neuronal cell membrane was regular. Growth cone could be detected, which had been seen at 7th and 21st days of life. At senile group the small nerve cells were detected in section of red nucleus in the form of darkly stained cytoplasm, ill-defined dark nucleus and irregular shape of nerve cell and marked reduction in all the constituents of the cytoplasm. The same findings were also confirmed by studying the semithin section. In conclusion, the previously observed histological alterations could explain the age related changes affecting the red nucleus, therefore it wasn’t surprising to find different locomotor’s impactions occurred with aging. © Neuroanatomy. 2009; 8: 7–14.

Pages 15-19

Review Article • Published online March 14th, 2009 • 569 KB

The communications between the ulnar and median nerves in upper limb

Unver Dogan N, Uysal II, Seker M.

The basic anatomy of the median and ulnar nerves in the upper limb is well described in textbooks. Besides detailed anatomy of the communications between median and ulnar nerves was designed to help hand surgeons understand both anatomic variations and paradoxic complaints of sensory and motor loss of patients. Reports in the literature describe the four communicating branches between median and ulnar nerves in the upper limb. We would like to summarize previous studies in order to be understood properly and make general comments on this complex relationship between structure and innervation. © Neuroanatomy. 2009; 8: 15–19.

Pages 20-25

Original Article • Published online March 14th, 2009 • 846 KB

Time to onset of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in rats after myocardial infarction and association with autonomic control of heart

Macit C, Mercanoglu G, Safran N, Gungor M, Eroglu L.

Although emotional factors increase the risk of cardiac deaths in patients with coronary artery disease, exact mechanisms underlying the increased risk has not been identified. The aim of the study was to investigate the anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors in rats after myocardial infarction and the association with the autonomic control of heart rate. Anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors were assessed during 28-day post myocardial infarction period. Myocardial infarction was induced surgically by the ligation of left anterior descending artery. Elevated plus-maze and forced swimming tests were chosen for assessment of anxiety and depression, respectively. Autonomic control of heart rate was evaluated by power spectral analysis of heart rate variability. Our findings showed that both anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors were seen after myocardial infarction. However anxiety-like behaviors were seen in the acute period of myocardial infarction, depression-like behaviors were significant in the late period. Anxiety but not depression was associated with reduced autonomic control of heart rate after myocardial infarction. These data lead to the conclusion that emotional factors seem to be involved in the prognostic factors in coronary artery disease. Adding of antidepressant/anxiolytic therapy to the reperfusion strategies in patients after myocardial infarction is very important. © Neuroanatomy. 2009; 8: 20–25.

Pages 26-31

Review Article • Published online April 27th, 2009 • 2.1 MB

Nerves of the heart: a comprehensive review with a clinical point of view

Mauro MPS, Patronelli F, Spinelli E, Cordero A, Covello D, Gorostiaga JA.

The heart is an organ which main characteristic is its autonomy of function. Therefore, it is possible to develop elementary experiments such as extirpating the heart of a frog (Bufo amenarum), which during a certain amount of time keeps beating and even responding to brady- or tachycardian chemical stimulations. The underlying cause of this phenomenon is the action of specific solutions, which shower the mentioned organ. However, inside the organism, it adapts its functions to the somatic reality and to the specific moment of that soma. These conducts are instrumented by a complex system of information gathering, the adoption of central nervous system’s function standards, and the production of functional responses suitable for the different possible situations. All these functions are related to cardiac innervation. © Neuroanatomy. 2009; 8: 26–31.

Pages 32-35

Review Article • Published online July 7th, 2009 • 175 KB

Neurophysiologic basis of Front-Mu points

Cabioglu MT, Kaya Y, Surucu HS.

Front-Mu points are specific acupuncture points located on the ventral surfaces of chest and abdominal wall. Acupuncture to Front-Mu points is used for treating diseases related with visceral organs. Applying acupuncture on Front-Mu points regulates visceral functions. In this article we tried to explain the effect mechanism of Front-Mu point acupuncture by corresponding these points with the segmental autonomic innervation of internal visceral organs. Changes in the visceral organs caused by application of acupuncture can be explained by viscero-cutaneous, cutaneo-visceral autonomic reflexes and modulation of sympathetic and parasympathetic systems by these reflexes. © Neuroanatomy. 2009; 8: 32–35.

Pages 36-38

Original Article • Published online July 7th, 2009 • 399 KB

The intraorbital course of ophthalmic artery and its relationship with the optic nerve

Kocabiyik N, Yazar F, Ozan H.

In this study, we aimed to investigate some features of the ophthalmic artery (OA), which supplies the internal structures of the orbit. We evaluated the origin, branches and the relationships of the OA with the optic nerve and carried out morphometric analyses. Our study was conducted on 60 human orbits. We evaluated the OA divided into three parts. The first part of OA usually runs along the infero-lateral aspect of the optic nerve. The second part of the OA passed over the optic nerve in most of the specimens and under the optic nerve in the other specimens. The third part of the OA ran medial to the optic nerve. Diameter of the OA was 1.45 ± 0.23 mm on the right and 1.42 ± 0.3 mm on the left. Diameter of the optic nerve was 4.1 ± 0.57 mm on the right and 4.2 ± 0.63 mm on the left. The mean intra-orbital length of the central retinal artery was 8.2 ± 1.6 mm on the right and 8.5 ± 2.03 mm on the left. The topographical relationships of the OA should be clinically important in surgical approaches to the orbit. © Neuroanatomy. 2009; 8: 36–38.

Pages 39-42

Brief Review • Published online July 7th, 2009 • 945 KB

Lipomas of corpus callosum

Taglialatela G, Galasso R, Taglialatela G, Conforti R, Volpe A, Galasso L.

Intracranial lipomas (iLp) are very rare congenital malformative lesions, being less than 0.1% of intracranial tumors. They originate from abnormal differentiation of mesenchimal tissue of meninx primitiva. Most of cases are asymptomatic pericallosal lesions, often associated with other defects of differentiation of the midline structures. Association with hypogenesis/agenesis of corpus callosum is frequent, being present in 90% of anterior lipomas and in 30% of posterior lipomas. There is no indication to surgical treatment in pure corpus callosum lipoma lesions. Prognosis and symptoms depends on associated malformations. © Neuroanatomy. 2009; 8: 39–42.

Pages 43-45

Case Report • Published online November 24th, 2009 • 616 KB

A cause of entrapment of the lingual nerve: ossified pterygospinous ligament - a case report

Erdogmus S, Pinar Y, Celik S.

The ossification of pterygospinous ligament forms the pterygospinous bony bridge and pterygospinous foramen. In existence of bony bridge, some branches of the mandibular nerve may run through the pterygospinous foramen. In this case, the entrapment of the nerve may occur. During routine dissection of a male cadaver that had been fixed with 10% formaldehyde solution, unusual course of the lingual nerve was encountered. The pterygospinous bony bridge passed among the fibers of the lingual nerve and it divided it into two parts as anterior and posterior. The anterior fibers lied between tensor veli palatini and medial pterygoid muscles, and the bony bridge, vulnerable to the risk of compression. The ossified pterygospinous ligament may cause mandibular neuralgia. Besides, it can act as an obstacle for the mandibular nerve block. © Neuroanatomy. 2009; 8: 43–45.

Pages 46-48

Original Article • Published online November 24th, 2009 • 740 KB

Surgical anatomy of petrous part of the internal carotid artery

Keshelava G, Mikadze I, Abzianidze G, Kikalishvili L, Kakabadze Z.

The purpose of this study was to reveal the anatomical relationships of petrous part of the internal carotid artery. Sixteen human cadavers were investigated via preauricular surgical approach (bilateral exposure on each cadaver). A 6 cm long incision was made in front of the auricle, along the posterior border of the ramus of mandible, as higher as the level of the temporomandibular joint. After luxation of temporo-mandibular articulation and milling of tympanic bone, vertical and horizontal segments of petrous part of the internal carotid artery were exposed. The vertical segment’s mean length was 12 mm (ranged 10 mm to 15 mm). The relationships of the vertical segment were the jugular fossa posteriorly, tympanic bone laterally, and Eustachian tube anteriorly. Horizontal segment’s mean length was 20 mm (ranged 18 mm to 22 mm). Angle between vertical and horizontal segments of the petrous part of the internal carotid artery was measured 105° (ranged 95 to 110°). V, VII, IX, X, XII cranial nerves, internal jugular vein, and Eustachian tube are important structures, which must be protected during high carotid surgery. © Neuroanatomy. 2009; 8: 46–48.

Table of Contents [Archives]

Year: 2011; Volume: 10 • In this volume there is 1 article.

Year: 2010; Volume: 9 • In this volume there are 3 articles.

Year: 2009; Volume: 8 • In this volume there are 11 articles.

Year: 2008; Volume: 7 • In this volume there are 24 articles and 1 supplement.

Year: 2007; Volume: 6 • In this volume there are 26 articles and 1 supplement.

Year: 2006; Volume: 5 • In this volume there are 19 articles and 2 supplement.

Year: 2005; Volume: 4 • In this volume there are 21 articles and 1 supplement.

Year: 2004; Volume: 3 • In this volume there are 18 articles and 1 supplement.

Year: 2003; Volume: 2 • In this volume there are 14 articles and 1 supplement.

Year: 2002; Volume: 1 • In this volume there are 9 articles.