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Neuroanatomy. Year: 2007; Volume: 6

Pages 1-5

Retracted Article • Published online January 29th, 2007 • 423 KB

Cyclophosphamide induced non-canalization of cerebral aqueduct resulting in hydrocephalus in mice

Prakash, Singh G, Singh S.

This study aims to understand the mechanism of failure of canalization of cerebral aqueduct following intrauterine exposure to reference teratogen, cyclophosphamide in murine pups. Non-canalization of cerebral aqueduct was found to result in internal hydrocephalus. Cyclophosphamide was administered to pregnant mice on day 10, 11, or 12 of gestation in a single dose of 20 mg/kg body weight. Fetuses were dissected out on day 19 and studied for hydrocephalus and other cerebral or cranial malformations. Serial sections of brain in coronal and transverse planes exhibited incomplete development and failure of canalization of cerebral aqueduct. Pressure of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in non-canalized aqueduct resulted in its rupture leading to leakage and accumulation of CSF in brain substance causing a cavity full of CSF close to unopened aqueduct. The large pool of CSF in the brain substance in extreme cases communicated with the subarachnoid space pushing through the substance of brain causing external hydrocephalus. Internal hydrocephalus on the other hand was resulted from back pressure of CSF following blockage in its flow due to non-canalization of the cerebral aqueduct. In the extreme cases internal and external hydrocephalus were seen intercommunicating. Cyclophosphamide induced inhibition of mitosis and cell differentiation of ependymal cells and augmentation of apoptosis of brain cells were attributed as the major causes underlying the incomplete development of cerebral aqueduct. The study also suggested inductive role of CSF in the differentiation of ependymal cells lining the cerebral aqueduct. © Neuroanatomy. 2007; 6: 1–5.

Pages 6-11

Retracted Article • Published online February 12nd, 2007 • 686 KB

Neuroimmune consequences of teratological insult induced by cyclophosphamide exposure during intrauterine life in mice

Prakash, Singh G, Singh S.

Present work is aimed to establish central nervous system and immune system changes in newly born murine pups produced after cyclophosphamide exposure during intrauterine life. Cyclophosphamide in single dose of 10 or 20 mg/kg body weight was administered to pregnant mice on day 11 of gestation. Fetuses were dissected out on day 19 and studied for gross malformations. Brains and thymuses were collected for further investigations. Cyclophosphamide treated brains and thymuses were smaller in size and distorted in shape as compared to control brains and thymuses. Protein estimation of brains revealed decline in both quantitative and qualitative aspect. Study of brain cells and thymocytes revealed 1) increase in apoptotic cell count and 2) increase in percent DNA fragmentation. In vitro cell proliferation assay exhibited decrease in both brain cells and thymocytes. Similar pattern of response shown by brain cells and thymocytes conclude interaction between central nervous system and immune system insults produced by cyclophosphamide. Loss of certain neuropeptides has culminated in thymic compromise besides direct actions. © Neuroanatomy. 2007; 6: 6–11.

Pages 12-16

Original Article • Published online February 26th, 2007 • 273 KB

Effects of folate supplementation on cleft palate induced by lamotrigine or cycloposphamide: an experimental study in mice

Prakash, Prabhu LV, Singh G.

This study aims to elucidate the preventive role of folate supplementation on induction of cleft palate in mice by drugs of two separate categories i.e. lamotrigine (newer antiepileptic and antipsychotic) and cyclophosphamide (anticancer and immunosuppressive). 10 pregnant swiss white mice (C) received normal saline intraperitoneally on day 10 of gestation. Two groups of 10 pregnant mice (T1) and (T2) each received lamotrigine or cycloposphamide respectively 10 mg/kg body weight (bw) intraperitoneally on day 10 of gestation. Folate was supplemented 0.8 μg/kg bw intraperitoneally along with lamotrigine or cyclophosphamide to two more groups of 10 pregnant mice (T3) and (T4) each respectively on the same day 10, of gestation. Fetuses were collected by Caesarian Section on day 18 of gestation. Fetuses collected from all the groups were examined macroscopically with stereomicroscope for palatal malformations. Coronal sections of fetal head were taken for histological study of palatine defects. Cleft palates were detected in 42 out of 70 (60.00%) fetuses of lamotrigine treated group (T1) and 49 out of 61 (80.33%) fetuses of cyclophosphamide treated group (T2). Folate supplementation resulted in different response; 15 out of 72 (20.83%) fetuses in T3 group and 51 out of 64 (79.69%) fetuses in T4 group had cleft palate. The difference was highly significant (p<0.001) when folic acid was administered with lamotrigine (T3) and was not significant (p>0.05) when it was administered with cyclophosphamide (T4) as compared to only lamotrigine (T1) or cyclophosphamide (T2) treated groups respectively. The preventive efficacies of folate supplementation for cleft palate vary considerably and in the same subject under identical conditions, depend primarily on the mechanism of action of the inducing agent. © Neuroanatomy. 2007; 6: 12–16.

Pages 17-20

Original Article • Published online February 26th, 2007 • 372 KB

DOC and GCA blocks the reduction of hypothalamic CRF containing neurons due to repetitive stress

Suhaimi FH, Mohamad NB, Abdulkadir KB.

Stress causes multiple adaptive hormonal responses including the secretion of CRF, ACTH and corticosteroids. These responses to repetitive stress could be blocked by naloxone, corticosteroids and glycyrrhizic acid (GCA). The effect of corticosteroids and GCA on the hypothalamic CRF containing neurons with repetitive stress has not been studied. Sprague-Dawley rats were given either dexamethasone (DEX), deoxycorticosterone (DOC) or GCA. On the eleventh day of treatment, the rats were exposed to two hours of immobilization stress and the procedure was repeated daily for another twelve days. The rats were sacrificed on days 2, 4, 8 and 12 after immobilization. On the days of sacrifice, the rats were transfused transcardially and the hypothalami were dissected for immunohistochemical analysis. With repetitive stress, the number of CRF containing neurons decreased significantly from 1631 ± 58 neurons/ mm2 to 595 ± 71 neurons/mm2 (p<0.0005) on second exposure to stress and gradually increased to basal values 2058 ± 109 neurons/mm2 by the 8–12 exposures to stress. DOC and GCA completely inhibited this decrease in CRF containing neurons. DEX initially caused a significant decrease in CRF containing neurons compared to controls with repetitive stress. The release of CRF, which initiates the hypothalamus pituitary adrenal responses to stress, could be blocked by mineralocorticoids as well as glucocorticoids. © Neuroanatomy. 2007; 6: 17–20.

Pages 21-23

Case Report • Published online March 14th, 2007 • 267 KB

Multiple anomalies of the brachial plexus: a case report

Kocabiyik N, Yalcin B, Kilic C, Ozan H.

During routine dissection of a 55-year old male cadaver, we observed multiple anomalies in the brachial plexus. The subclavian artery entered scalenus anterior muscle while the roots C8-T1 of the brachial plexus passed behind scalenus medius. The anterior divisions of upper and middle trunks united to form the lateral cord lateral to the axillary artery. The anterior division of the lower trunk ran as the medial cord medial to the axillary artery. Suprascapular nerve did not arise from the superior trunk; it arose from the root of C5. Superior subscapular, thoracodorsal and inferior subscapular nerves arose from the posterior division of the upper trunk. Afterwards, the posterior cord continued as axillary and radial nerves. The musculocutaneous and ulnar nerves had their normal courses. © Neuroanatomy. 2007; 6: 21–23.

Pages 24-25

Case Report • Published online March 23rd, 2007 • 190 KB

Variation in the course of the left phrenic nerve: a case report

Rao TR, Kumar B, Shetty P, Rao SR.

Variations in the origin, course and distribution of the phrenic nerve have been reported previously. But in this report, a rare case of formation of an annulus was found in the course of the phrenic nerve near to its origin, during gross anatomy dissection of the left side of the neck of an Indian male cadaver. The annulus was enclosing the origins of suprascapular and internal thoracic arteries. However, such variation was not found on the opposite side of the same cadaver. © Neuroanatomy. 2007; 6: 24–25.

Pages 26-27

Case Report • Published online March 23rd, 2007 • 210 KB

A rare case of formation of double ansa cervicalis

Rao TR, Shetty P, Rao SR.

Ansa cervicalis is a loop of nerves found in the anterior wall of the carotid sheath in the carotid triangle. The descendens hypoglossi branch of hypoglossal nerve joins the descendens cervicalis, formed by branches from the second and third cervical nerves, to form the ansa cervicalis. The ansa cervicalis nerve formation is relatively complex, as its course and location along the great vessels of the neck vary. In the present case, on the right side of the neck of a 55 year old male cadaver we observed a rare case of formation of double ansa cervicalis, due to the variation in the course of C1 fibers. © Neuroanatomy. 2007; 6: 26–27.

Pages 28-29

Case Report • Published online April 25th, 2007 • 292 KB

Bilateral absence of foramen transversarium in atlas vertebra: a case report

Nayak S.

Atlas is the first cervical vertebra. It does not have a body like other cervical vertebrae. It has two transverse processes, each one of which bears a foramen transversarium. The vertebral artery passes through this foramen. We noticed a bilateral absence of foramen transversarium in an atlas vertebra during osteology demonstration classes. The knowledge of this variation may be of importance during the interventions to that area and also of interest for anthropologists. © Neuroanatomy. 2007; 6: 28–29.

Pages 30-31

Case Report • Published online May 4th, 2007 • 234 KB

An unusual flexor of the little finger and ulnar nerve entrapment: a case report

Nayak SR, Pai MM, Krishnamurthy A, Kumar MSJ, Vadgaonkar R, Prabhu LV.

Variations in the flexor digitorum superficialis are rare. We report an unusual digastric flexor muscle of the little finger arising independently from the ulnar collateral ligament and right coronoid process of ulna. This digastric muscle was on the medial side of the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle, and got inserted into the middle phalanx of the little finger. The tendon of flexor digitorum superficialis to the little finger was absent. In addition, the ulnar nerve was making a peculiar course, where it entered the forearm between the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle and the digastric muscle. The clinical significance and probable complication caused by the variants are discussed. © Neuroanatomy. 2007; 6: 30–31.

Pages 32-33

Case Report • Published online May 12nd, 2007 • 234 KB

Atlas assimilation: a case report

Ranade AV, Rai R, Prabhu LV, Kumaran M, Pai MM.

Congenital and acquired bony abnormalities of the cranio-vertebral junction may result in compression and distortion of the neural structures, vertebro-basilar vascular system, and cerebrospinal fluid channels. Ninetyeight human skulls of both sexes were examined for occipitalization of atlas. Two crania showed various degrees of assimilation of the atlas to the basicranium. One of the skulls showed complete fusion of the atlas with the occipital bone. Whereas, in the other skull atlas was partially fused to the occipital bone. Even though assimilation of the atlas is the most common anomaly found in cranio-cervical junction, head and neck surgeons should be aware that such an anomaly may exist without any typical symptomatic presentation, and thus, serious consequences of upper cervical spinal manipulative therapy may arise when a complete and adequate clinical assessment is missed. © Neuroanatomy. 2007; 6: 32–33.

Pages 34-35

Letter to the Editor • Published online May 19th, 2007 • 269 KB

A mysterious clival canal and its importance

Nayak SR, Saralaya V, Prabhu LV, Pai MM.

No absctract available. © Neuroanatomy. 2007; 6: 34–35.

Pages 36-38

Case Report • Published online May 23rd, 2007 • 292 KB

Clinically significant neurovascular variations in the axilla and the arm – a case report

George BM, Nayak S, Kumar P.

Knowledge of neurovascular variations is important for surgeons who remove axillary lymph nodes, to anesthesiologists, and orthopedic surgeons. We found surgically important variations of axillary artery, axillary vein, median, radial and musculocutaneous nerves in the right upper limb of a male cadaver. The axillary artery gave a large abnormal arterial trunk which in turn divided into a common circumflex humeral-subscapular trunk and profunda brachii artery. The abnormal trunk was sandwiched between the two roots of median nerve at its origin. There was an abnormal communicating branch between medial cord and radial nerve. The axillary vein was duplicated in most of its course and was abnormally large in size. In the arm, the musculocutaneous nerve gave three communicating branches to the median nerve. The abnormality reported here might result in neurovascular compression symptoms in the upper limb and might cause confusions in anesthesia and surgery. © Neuroanatomy. 2007; 6: 36–38.

Pages 39-40

Case Report • Published online May 29th, 2007 • 192 KB

Absence of interthalamic adhesion in a female cadaver: a case report

Cimen M, Erdil FH, Kalkan K, Tetiker H, Karacan A.

The interthalamic adhesion is a midline structure that connects each thalami at the medial surface. It is about 1 cm in dimension. Sometimes it cannot be found. It has been questioned whether there is a correlation between absence of the interthalamic adhesion and pathological conditions. Therefore various clinical and postmortem studies carried on related with the absence or presence of this structure. In this case, we observed that the interthalamic adhesion was absent in a 39-year-old female cadaver. We presented our case and discussed the literature to contribute the postmortem investigations. © Neuroanatomy. 2007; 6: 39–40.

Pages 41-42

Case Report • Published online June 1th, 2007 • 212 KB

Sural nerve entrapment in gastrocnemius muscle – a case report

George B, Nayak S.

Although the sural nerve is the most extensively studied nerve in man, there is a dearth of data regarding the normal variations in the size and distribution of axons in normal subjects. The sural nerve is the most frequently used sensory nerve in nerve transplantation. The knowledge of variations in its course and distribution play an important role in the surgical procedures. Here, we report an entrapment of the sural nerve in the gastrocnemius. © Neuroanatomy. 2007; 6: 41–42.

Pages 43-45

Case Report • Published online June 7th, 2007 • 285 KB

Multiple bilateral neuroanatomical variations of the nerves of the arm

Chitra R.

Variations in the formation of median and musculocutaneous nerves are common but this is an interesting case report of the variant formation and position of median nerve and musculocutaneous nerve and different types of communications between the musculocutaneous and median nerves in both arms of the same cadaver. During educational dissection for the undergraduate students in our college, in a male cadaver of approximately 50 years of Asian origin, in the region of axilla and arm, the variations of the median nerve and musculocutaneous nerves are observed. On the left side, the median nerve was formed medial to the third part of the axillary artery. The musculocutaneous nerve did not pierce the coracobrachialis muscle and it gave a communicating branch to the median nerve in the distal third of the arm. On the right side, the musculocutaneous and median nerves were fused for 2 cms and then musculoctaneous and median nerves separated. The musculocutaneous nerve did not pierce the coracobrachialis and the median nerve was medial to the axillary artery this side also. © Neuroanatomy. 2007; 6: 43–45.

Pages 46-48

Original Article • Published online July 4th, 2007 • 246 KB

Musculotopic organization of the orbicularis oculi within the facial motor nucleus of the albino rat

Kurup S, Bharihoke V, Sangari SK.

Musculotopic organization of the motor neuron pools innervating the orbicularis oculi within the facial motor nucleus of the albino rat was investigated using retrograde fluorescent tracers – Fast Blue and Diamidino Yellow – and histological techniques. The facial motor nucleus consisted of multipolar motor neurons. It had a rostrocaudal extent of 1.07 ± 0.02 cm and consisted of 5 subnuclei – medial, intermediate, dorsolateral, ventrolateral and suprafacial. Retrograde labelling by exposure of the proximal cut end of the nerve to orbicularis oculi to the tracers ipsilaterally and then bilaterally revealed ipsilateral labelling of scattered neurons in all subdivisions of the facial motor nucleus except the suprafacial. Double labelling of a few neurons were observed indicating the origin of some nerves from the contralateral nucleus also. These results confirm previous studies regarding musculotopic organization of the facial motor nucleus and support the fact that sparing of orbicularis oculi in the upper motor neuron lesions could be attributed to the bilateral innervation at the lower motor neuron level. © Neuroanatomy. 2007; 6: 46–48.

Pages 49-50

Case Report • Published online July 6th, 2007 • 254 KB

Absence of musculocutaneous nerve associated with clinically important variations in the formation, course and distribution of the median nerve – a case report

Nayak S.

Variations in the nerves of the upper limb are not uncommon. We saw the variations in the origin, course and distribution of the median nerve in the left upper limb. The musculocutaneous nerve was absent. The median nerve was formed in the upper part of the arm, in front of the brachial artery. The nerve passed deep to the brachial artery from lateral to medial side. Median nerve supplied the biceps, coracobrachialis and brachialis muscles and gave lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm. The third part of the axillary artery was compressed by two abnormal bands connecting medial root of median nerve with its lateral root. © Neuroanatomy. 2007; 6: 49–50.

Pages 51-53

Original Article • Published online July 20th, 2007 • 486 KB

The effect of spatial learning on the number of astrocytes in rat dentate gyrus

Jahanshahi M, Sadeghi Y, Hosseini A, Naghdi N.

In this study, we evaluated the effect of spatial learning on the number of astrocytes in the rat dentate gyrus with Morris water maze. Fifteen male albino Wistar rats were divided into three groups as control, reference memory and working memory groups. Each group was consisted of 5 rats. After spatial learning, the brains were histologically examined; the slides were stained with phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin (PTAH) staining to show the astrocytes. We found significant difference in the number of astrocytes in dentate gyrus between control and reference memory groups, and between control and working memory groups as well. When compared two learning groups there was a significant difference in the number of astrocytes between them, being higher in the working memory group. We concluded that the number of astrocytes increased due to spatial learning and this increase can be affected to the period of learning. Our studies of spatial learning and effect of learning techniques (reference and working memory) showed that the technique that has longer period of learning has more effect on the number of astrocytes. © Neuroanatomy. 2007; 6: 51–53.

Pages 54-55

Case Report • Published online September 11th, 2007 • 268 KB

Unusual isolated ossification of falx cerebri: a case report

Rao SR, Rao TR, Ovchinnikov N, McRae A, Rao AVC.

Awareness of anomalous ossification of the falx cereberi is a useful guide for both in studies of human anatomy and in clinical practice today. It is of significant practical importance for the neurosurgeons and radiologist, to know the form, degree of severity and range of extension of such changes. Images of skull and brain with such ossification patterns may lead to confusion in interpretation. The relations of this ossification with neighboring brain tissue, blood vessels and other structures are important for an accurate diagnosis and to prevent further surgical complications during routine surgery. In our routine dissections for the preparation of teaching and museum specimens, in one elderly Trinidadian African male cadaver, we observed isolated islands of ossification in the falx cerebri. © Neuroanatomy. 2007; 6: 54–55.

Pages 56-57

Case Report • Published online September 21th, 2007 • 192 KB

Intracranial hemorrhage of a newborn due to a congenital defect on the roof of the cavernous sinus

Canturk N, Tosun H, Yagli OE, Ozveren MF, Tekdemir I.

Spontaneous early perinatal bleeding associated with intracranial hemorrhage results from brain anomalies or systemic reasons. A congenital dural defect of the cavernous sinus may be another cause of nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage in the newborn. A female newborn died one hour following the birth. She had a pale skin. Predominantly left sided subdural hemorrhage causing brain comppression was found on examination. There was no congenital abnormality on investigations but a a dural defect of 2 mm in diameter on the wall of the left side of the cavernous sinus. Presence of dural defect on the wall of the cavernous sinus may result in early perinatal death associated with intracranial hemorrhage. © Neuroanatomy. 2007; 6: 56–57.

Pages 58-62

Review Article • Published online October 31th, 2007 • 244 KB

Sulcus nervi dorsalis penis/clitoridis: anatomical and clinical implications

Sedy J.

Sulcus nervi dorsalis penis/clitoridis is a distinct groove located on the inferior ramus of pubis and ventral surface of the body of pubis. In male, it accomodates the dorsal nerve of penis whereas in female the dorsal nerve and artery of clitoris. Close relation of dorsal nerve of penis/clitoris and pubis, represented by the course of sulcus nervi dorsalis penis/clitoridis has a major impact in surgical disciplines. Exact preparation of the dorsal nerve of penis is crucial in correct performance of conversion of genitalia in patients with transsexualism, in reconstruction of posterior urethra, in hypospadia, during performance of penile blocade during circumcision and in revascularization surgery of erectile dysfunction. The role of sulcus nervi dorsalis penis in the Alcock’s syndrome is discussed. Similarly, it is advisable to take care of the dorsal nerve of clitoris inside sulcus nervi dorsalis clitoridis during reduction clitoridoplasty in patients with adrenogenital syndrome and during the insertion of transobturator vaginal tape. Injury of dorsal nerve of penis/clitoris leads to hypestesia or anestesia of glans penis/clitoridis. The injury of dorsal artery of clitoris leads to hematoma. It is possible to use sulcus nervi dorsalis penis/clitoridis for sexing of isolated pubis for antropological or forensic purposes. Lateral border of sulcus nervi dorsalis penis corresponds to vertical ridge and lateral border of sulcus nervi dorsalis clitoridis to ventral arc – two parameters, which are parts of the Phenice’s method for sexing of isolated pubic bones. © Neuroanatomy. 2007; 6: 58–62.

Pages 63-65

Original Article • Published online November 29th, 2007 • 236 KB

An MRI study of sex- and age-related differences in the dimensions of the corpus callosum and brain

Mourgela S, Anagnostopoulou S, Sakellaropoulos A, Gouliamos A.

The primary purposes of this study were to investigate the possible existence of sex- and age-related differences in 1) the various dimensions of the corpus callosum, and 2) its relative position within the brain. Magnetic resonance images (MRI) from 21 females and 14 males, ranging in age from 24 to 80, were reviewed. Only MRI studies without any pathologic findings were included in analysis. The following corpus callosum measurements were done: maximum longitudinal dimension (frontal to occipital pole-AB); maximum vertical dimension (upper to lower surface-CD); length of the genu (EZ/3); length of the splenium (EZ/5); and total longitudinal dimension of the corpus callosum (EZ). Callosal longitudinal dimensions were measured using the Witelson division method, and were correlated with brain dimensions in the same living humans, in order to examine for sex- and age-related differences. To investigate age-related differences, we stratified the studied population into age subgroups (24-45, 46-65, 66- 80). Statistical analysis involved Spearman correlations and Wilcoxon sign ranks tests. Across all subjects, there was minimal variability in the dimensions and relative dimensions of the corpus callosum. The longitudinal dimension of the genu (EZ/3) and total corpus callosum (EZ) were found to be larger in males, whereas the longitudinal dimension of the splenium (EZ/5) was larger in females. Females exhibited a smaller brain vertical dimension versus males. The ratios -EZ:AE and EZ:CD - were larger in females, but the dimensions EZ/3, EZ, and EZ/5 did not vary with gender. Corpus callosum dimensions were statistically less, by 3%, in those over age 45 versus those younger than 45. The corpus callosum’s dimensions and position remain stable relative to surrounding brain, but some sex differences exist. Also, the brain and corpus callosum both appear to decrease in size in older individuals. © Neuroanatomy. 2007; 6: 63–65.

Pages 66-71

Original Article • Published online December 1th, 2007 • 484 KB

Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) prevents formaldehyde-induced neuronal damage in hippocampus of rats

Ozdem Turkoglu A, Sarsilmaz M, Kus I, Songur A, Ozyurt H, Akpolat N, Ogeturk M.

The aim of this study was to investigate the neurotoxicity of formaldehyde on hippocampus and the protective effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) against these toxic effects. For this purpose, 21 male Wistar rats were divided into three groups. The rats in Group I comprised the controls, while the rats in Group II were injected every day with formaldehyde (FA). The rats in Group III received CAPE daily while exposed to formaldehyde. At the end of 8 days experimental period, all rats were sacrificed by decapitation. The brains of the rats were removed and the hippocampus tissues were obtained from all brain specimens. Some of the hippocampus tissue specimens were used for determination of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. The remaining hippocampus tissue specimens were used for light microscopic and immunohistochemical evaluation. The levels of SOD, GSH-Px and MDA were significantly increased in rats treated with formaldehyde compared with those of the controls. Furthermore, in the microscopic examination of this group, formation of apoptotic bodies, pycnotic cells, and vacuoler degeneration areas were observed. However, decreased biochemical parameters were detected in the rats administered CAPE while exposed to formaldehyde. Additionally, cellular damage caused by formaldehyde was decreased, and structural appearance was similar to that of the control rats in this group. These biochemical and histological findings observed in all groups were also confirmed by the immunohistochemical evaluation. It was determined that formaldehyde-induced neuronal damage in hippocampus was prevented by administration of CAPE. © Neuroanatomy. 2007; 6: 66–71.

Pages 72-74

Case Report • Published online December 29th, 2007 • 248 KB

Congenital defects of posterior arch of the atlas: a case report

Ozdolap S, Sarikaya S, Balbaloglu O, Kayaci M.

Our aim was to describe an unusual congenital anomaly of atlas and to emphasize its clinical significance. A 43-year old woman presented with occipital headache that was worse with hyperextension of neck. Patient denied any neck pain and other neurological complain. On examination, the only positive finding on physical examination was moderate pain at the upper cervical and occipital region throughout neck extension. The cranial nerve examination was unremarkable, and motor and sensory findings were normal. Plain cervical radiographs revealed bilateral defects in the posterior arch of atlas. Computed tomography scans in flexion and extension positions showed no displacement or inward mobility of the posterior tubercle during extension of the cervical spine. No evidence of compression of the spinal cord was detected on magnetic resonance imaging. Congenital anomalies of the posterior arch of the atlas are very uncommon and usually asymptomatic. Neurological presentations depend on type of defect of posterior arch of atlas. It is crucial to recognize this defect to prevent major neurological deficits. © Neuroanatomy. 2007; 6: 72–74.

Page 75

Book Review • Published online December 29th, 2007 • 163 KB

‘Clinical Anatomy by Regions’ by Richard S. Snell

Tascioglu AB.

No abstract available. © Neuroanatomy. 2007; 6: 75.

Page 76

Book Review • Published online December 29th, 2007 • 148 KB

‘Fundamental Anatomy’ by Walter C. Hartwig

Tascioglu AB.

No abstract available. © Neuroanatomy. 2007; 6: 76.

Supplement 1

Abstracts • Published online April 15th, 2007 • 943 KB

6th National Congress of Neuroscience; 9th–13th April 2007; Zonguldak Karaelmas University; Safranbolu/Karabuk–Turkey.

No author available.

No abstract available. © Neuroanatomy. 2007; 6: Supplement 1.

Table of Contents [Archives]

Year: 2011; Volume: 10 • In this volume there is 1 article.

Year: 2010; Volume: 9 • In this volume there are 3 articles.

Year: 2009; Volume: 8 • In this volume there are 11 articles.

Year: 2008; Volume: 7 • In this volume there are 24 articles and 1 supplement.

Year: 2007; Volume: 6 • In this volume there are 26 articles and 1 supplement.

Year: 2006; Volume: 5 • In this volume there are 19 articles and 2 supplement.

Year: 2005; Volume: 4 • In this volume there are 21 articles and 1 supplement.

Year: 2004; Volume: 3 • In this volume there are 18 articles and 1 supplement.

Year: 2003; Volume: 2 • In this volume there are 14 articles and 1 supplement.

Year: 2002; Volume: 1 • In this volume there are 9 articles.